A case—control study of 31 breast cancer cases from the Inuit population Bonefeld-Jorgensen et al. In summary, the movement of toxicology and hazard assessment toward a pathway-based paradigm opens numerous opportunities in applying nontraditional approaches for hazard screening and understanding the risks of chemical exposures. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. Determination of species-specific dose and kinetic parameters. The Tier 1 tests were focused on sensitively detecting the potential to cause effects, rather than accurate quantification of hazard thresholds. Risk Anal 15 79— Compared with larger particles, small particles have higher total particle number concentrations PNCs, reported as particles per cubic meterand they tend to absorb more toxic components, have higher deposition efficiency in the respiratory tract, and have larger surface areas Delfino et al.
National Institute of Environmental Health Science. This article has been corrected. See Environ Health Perspect.
July 01; (7): a Environmental Health Perspectives · Open Access logo. Wind Turbines and Health: The Noise Connection, with Aslak Harbo Poulsen. Your browser does not. Environmental Health Perspectives. National Environ Health Perspect –; .
), and PEF at 4 years of age (Nordling et al.
Both HTS and fathead minnow reproduction data exist for nine chemicals [atrazine, bisphenol A BPAfenarimol, fipronil, methoxychlor, prochloraz, propiconazole, prometon, and vinclozolin; Table 1 ].
Williams et al. Alternative models are especially useful in understanding the specific mechanisms and pathways through which chemicals cause toxicity to mammals, thereby reducing and refining the use of mammalian models.
Support Center Support Center. PFOS has also been linked to altered cholesterol levels in human epidemiological studies Eriksen et al.
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|Cohort mortality study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid. Duplicated genes are generally free to evolve and acquire new functions, which can confuse functional attribution by sequence similarity. This study has several other limitations.
Our findings are also in agreement with an ecological study of incident cancer rates in relation to PFOA exposure levels between and in five Ohio and eight West Virginia counties Vieira et al. Using human-focused molecular initiating event assays to predict higher-level effects across species.
Jun;(6):A doi: /ehpa CAFOs and environmental justice: the case of North Carolina. Nicole W. Erratum. 1. Environ Health Perspect.
Mar;(3) doi: /ehp Epub Jan 8. Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and mortality in a.
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Environ Health Perspect. Mar;(3) doi: /ehp Epub Feb 6. Maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth.
Wichmann et al. Validity of self-reported cancers in a prospective cohort study in comparison with data from state cancer registries. Cardiol Rev. Introduction Perfluorooctanoic acid PFOA, or C8 is a synthetic chemical used since the late s in manufacturing industrial and household products Steenland et al.
Clin Pharmacokinet. The use of alternative species and pathway-based approaches for hazard assessment is still evolving; therefore, caution should be used when applying these approaches so that ample scientific evidence is presented to support extrapolations and other conclusions.
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|Adverse outcomes occur when the degree of inhibition of TH synthesis and release exceeds the ability of the feedback loop to maintain TH levels.
CAFOs and environmental justice the case of North Carolina.
Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives? Drug Chem Toxicol. Used in a pathway context, nonmammalian vertebrates and embryo tests can clearly show similar effects to chemicals as found in mammals.
Daily mortality and fine and ultrafine particles in Erfurt, Germany. Current perspectives on the use of alternative species in human health and ecological hazard assessments.
Environ Health Perspect –; a). Because our main interest was exposures occurring in pregnancy.
In accord with Chinese government regulations, the monitor was located away from major roads, industrial sources, buildings, and residential sources of emissions from burning coal, waste, or oil.
Of these, we interviewed 4, workers, including 1, who were also enrolled in the C8 Health Project. In addition, we obtained a list of DuPont workers who formed a cohort that was originally constructed for a mortality study Leonard et al. Organismal and thyroidal responses to the model compounds 6-propylthiouracil, methimazole, and thyroxine.
The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests. A disadvantage to extrapolation based on experimental data is that it is limited to the range of concentrations or doses used.
Early development in vertebrates is typically characterized by transient elevations of thyroid hormone TH that elicit species-specific physiological and morphogenetic responses with lasting developmental consequences as seen in the metamorphosis of free-swimming tadpoles into juveniles Dodd ; Leloup and Buscagliareorganization of the flatfish body Power et al.
Environ health perspect.
|Duplicated genes are generally free to evolve and acquire new functions, which can confuse functional attribution by sequence similarity. Toxicol Sci. Footnotes This work was funded partly by the U. The use of traditional animal models and assays to assess the potential human and ecological hazards and risks posed by tens of thousands of chemicals that are currently being evaluated both in Europe and the United States would be prohibitively costly and time consuming, and vastly increase the number of testing animals needed Rovida and Hartung Disruption of TH activity can result from several established events Crofton ; Figure 2.|